Glossary of Common Food Additives

List of commonly found Food Additives:

• Acidity regulators
• Anti-foaming agents
•  Color fixatives
•  Emulsifiers
•  Flavor enhancer
• Food acids
• Glazing agents
• Improving agents
• Preservatives
• Propellants
• Sequestrates
• Stabilizers
• Thickeners
• Anti-caking agents
• Coloring
•  Color retention agents
• Firming agents
• Flour treatment agents
• Gelling agents
• Humectants
• Mineral salts
•  Antioxidants
• Seasonings
• Sweeteners
• Artificial Sweeteners
• Vegetable gums

Caffeine and other GRAS (generally recognized as safe) additives such as sugar and salt are not required to go through the regulation process.

Ammonium bicarbonate (also called bicarbonate of ammonia, ammonium hydrogen carbonate, hart shorn, or powdered baking ammonia) is the bicarbonate salt of ammonia. Ammonium bicarbonate was used in the food industry as a raising agent (e.g.. for gingerbread or Chinese youtiao) before the introduction of baking soda.

Aspartame, (IPA: /ˈæ.spɚˌteɪm/ or /əˈspɑɹˌteɪm/), is the name for an artificial, non-carbohydrate sweetener,

This sweetener is marketed under a number of trademark names, such as Equal, and Canderel, and is an ingredient of approximately 6,000 consumer foods and beverages sold worldwide. It is commonly used in diet soft drinks, and is often provided as a table condiment.
Aspartame’s attractiveness as a sweetener comes from the fact that it is approximately 180 times sweeter than sugar in typical concentrations without the high energy value of sugar. While aspartame, like other peptides, has a caloric value of 4 kilo calories (17 kilo joules) per gram, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small that its caloric contribution is negligible, which makes it a popular sweetener for those trying to avoid calories from sugar. The taste of aspartame is not identical to that of sugar: aspartame’s sweetness has a slower onset and longer duration than sugar’s

The bergamot orange (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) is a small and roughly pear-shaped citrus fruit. The fruit, produced in Italy, is a cross between the pear lemon and the Seville orange or grapefruit. Bergamot oranges grow on small trees known as bergamots. The fruit is sour, and its aromatic peel is used to produce an essential oil that is used in Earl Grey tea, in perfumery, in candy-making, and in aromatherapy to treat depression. It is also used as a digestive aid.

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a fat-soluble organic compound primarily used as an antioxidant food additive (E number E321).

Cellulose gum or CMC (carboxymethylcellulose) possesses excellent clarity in solution, is available in a wide variety of viscosity ranges and particle size characteristics and provides smooth or thixotropic (pulpy) flow characteristics depending on preference. This ingredient is an excellent tool for replacing sugar (& calories) in light syrups or high brix fruit preps where body, clarity and economics are required. In powdered non-caloric instant beverages and nutritional drinks, CMC is a preferred thickener, sugar replacer, and bodying agent with rapid hydration function. CMC is a great stabilization product for diabetic frozen desserts where control of heat shock, serum separation and lactose crystallization are required.

Dextrose is glucose sugar refined from corn starch. Dextrose is a sweetener and a readily available source of energy. Dextrose is produced by the enzyme conversion of corn starch and then refined by ion-exchange demineralization.

Used as additive in the coffee creamers substitute and as nutrient in various powdered materials (stabilizer emulsifier in non-dairy creamers, bodybuilding drinks). Its function is to prevent protein coagulation, and also to prevent its precipitation. It is a humectant. Also included in foods where low Sodium is specified, like low Sodium cheeses. It helps control the pH in food processing applications

is a food additive used as a flavor enhancer, in synergy with monosodium glutamate (the sodium salt of glutamic acid, MSG). As it is a fairly expensive additive, it is not used independently of glutamic acid; if disodium guanlyate is present in a list of ingredients but MSG does not appear to be, it is likely that glutamic acid is provided as part of another ingredient such as a processed soy protein complex.

Disodium guanylate is a flavor enhancer derived from dried fish or dried seaweed. It is a by-product of disodium inosinate. It is also known as Flavour enhancer 627 or Flavor Enhancer E627. It is found in instant noodles, potato chips and snacks, savory rice, tinned vegetables, cured meats, packet soup.

It is a food additive often found in instant noodles, potato chips, and a variety of other snacks. It is used as a flavor enhancer, in synergy with monosodium glutamate (also known as MSG; the sodium salt of glutamic acid). As it is a fairly expensive additive, it is not used independently of glutamic acid; if disodium inosinate is present in a list of ingredients but MSG does not appear to be, it is likely that glutamic acid is provided as part of another ingredient. It is often added to foods in conjunction with disodium guanylate.

Horchata or orxata is the name for several kinds of vegetable beverages, made of ground almonds, rice, barley or tiger nuts (chufas).
Etymology: The name comes from Valencian orxata, probably from ordiata, made from ordi (barley) (Latin *hordeata < hordeum). The French and English 'orgeat', the Italian 'orzata', and the Surinamese Dutch orgeade have the same origin, though the beverages themselves have diverged, and none of them is typically made from barley anymore.
According to a folk etymology, James I of Aragon was offered a glass of the beverage by an Arab girl after his conquest of Valencia, and exclaimed, Això és or, xata! (This is gold, girl!).
In Spain, it usually refers to orxata de xufes (horchata de chufas), made from tiger nuts, water and sugar. Originally from Valencia, it is served ice cold as a refreshment. It has a regulating council to ensure the quality of the product and the villages where it can come from, with the Denomination of Origin. The village of Alboraia is well known for the quality of their horchatas. The idea of making horchata from tiger nuts comes from the period of Muslim presence in Valencia (from the 8 th to 13 th century).
Horchata is found in Central American and Mexican cuisine but is especially common in Salvadorian cuisine , horchata is a rice-based, or morro-based beverage, though a few formulations contain both. While the drink is usually tan and "milky", some recipes call for milk, and others do not. Other ingredients often include sugar, cinnamon, and vanilla. Though horchata was once typically homemade, it is now available in both ready-to-drink (shelf-stable or refrigerated) and powdered form in grocery stores.
In the US, rice-based or morro horchata is served in many Salvadorian restaurants, and the horchata de chufas is virtually unknown. Rice-based horchata is also sometimes available in US grocery and convenience stores, especially those in Latino neighborhoods. Today it can also be found in some Mexican restaurants
The horchata found in El Salvador is often made of a mixture of herbs, not rice. In El Salvador, horchata is typically flavored with Morro (Calabash tree) seed, ground cocoa and cinnamon as well as sesame seeds, and in some cases is strained; this style is served in Salvadorian restaurants.
In the United States Horchata is a flavor of frozen fountain drink available at QuikTrip convenience stores in the Atlanta, GA and Dallas/Fort Worth, TX area. It is possible that this drink is available at other QuikTrip locations in the Unites States.
In other parts of the country, Mexican-style horchata is found in Mexican restaurants and taquerias.
As an alcoholic mixer…Some Latin-American bars in Southern California use horchata as a mixer in a Rice Rocket. The drink comprises of 2 parts horchata, 1 part coconut-flavored rum and a dash of Goldschläger over ice.

Maltodextrin is a moderately sweet polysaccharide used as a food additive, unrelated to barley malt. It is produced from corn starch and is usually found as a creamy white hygroscopic powder. Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose.

Monosodium glutamate, sodium glutamate, flavor enhancer 621, EU food additive code: E621, HS code: 29224220 (IUPAC names: 2-aminopentanedioic acid, 2-aminoglutaric acid, 1-aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid), commonly known as MSG, Ajinomoto or Vetsin, is a sodium salt of glutamic acid. MSG is a food additive, popularly marketed as a "flavor enhancer".

Phenylalanine is an essential alpha-amino acid.
It is present in many sugarless gums, Monster Munch crisps, sugarless soft drinks (such as Diet Coke) and a number of other food products, all of which must be labeled: "Phenylketonurics: Contains phenylalanine." It's important to realize that phenylalanine itself is not present in the food. Rather, the artificial sweetener aspartame (e.g. Equal, NutraSweet) is present.

Potassium sorbate is a mild preservative. Its primary use is as a food preservative.

It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water.

As a food additive it is used as a preservative, effectively killing most yeasts, bacteria and fungi.

Non-dairy creamers typically contain sodium caseinate, a milk protein (casein) derivative that does not contain lactose and is not considered a dairy product.

Commercial lecithin, as used by food manufacturers, is a mixture of phospholipids in oil. The lecithin is obtained by degumming the extracted oil of seeds. The lecithin is a mixture of various phospholipids, and the compositions depends on the origin of the lecithin. A major source of lecithin is soybean oil.

Lecithin is regarded as a well tolerated and non-toxic surfactant. It is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for human consumption with the status "Generally Recognized As Safe". Lecithin is an integral part of cell membranes, and can be totally metabolized, so it is virtually non-toxic to humans

Tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, tertiary butylhydroquinone, or 2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,4-benzenediol) is an aromatic organic compound which is a type of phenol. As food additive, its E number is E319, where it is used as an antioxidant. It is added to a wide range of foods, with highest limit (1000 mg/kg) permitted for frozen fish and fish products. It is often added to vegetable oils. Its primary advantage is enhancing storage life.

Turmeric (Curcuma longa, also called tumeric or kunyit in some Asian countries[1]) is a spice commonly used in curries and other South Asian cuisine. Its active ingredient is curcumin. It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards, canned chicken broth, and other foods.

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